Cancer Immunotherapy Use on Cancer Patients

Recent advances in treating cancer patients have resulted in the development of biological therapies that can prove to be a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapies. Immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to identify and fight effectively against cancer cells.

Immunotherapy works by attacking the growth of cancer cells or stimulating the immune system to kill cancer cells. Contradictory to the standard cancer treatment regimes such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, which act on both normal and cancerous cells, immuno-therapeutic treatments are highly specific. A wide range of cancer immuno-therapy approaches exists such as immune checkpoint blockers, cancer vaccines, immune-modulators, monoclonal antibodies and cell based immuno-therapies have demonstrated to be effective against cancer patients.

The most commonly targeted form of cancer chemotherapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies as they can be tailor-made in the laboratory. They have unique antigen specificity thereby allowing themselves to attach to specific epitopes on cancer cells. This flags the cancer cells and makes it more visible to the immune system so that it can find and destroy those cells. Currently, most of the monoclonal antibodies are undergoing phase 3 clinical trials or awaiting FDA review process. Unlike monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immuno-therapy approaches such as administration of immuno-modulatory cytokines are also being used to treat melanoma. Cytokines are hormones that are endogenously produced by the body to enhance or suppress T-cell response against cancer cells. IFN-α and IL-2 are most commonly characterized cytokines used in cancer immuno-therapy.

The primary cell-based immuno-therapy strategy which is successful these days is the use of T-cell therapy, wherein cancer T cells removed from blood are modified with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and is then infused back into the patients to treat metastatic cancer. Another form of cell-based immuno-therapy used is tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) therapy, wherein TIL is surgically removed from tumor tissue and is considerably increased in the laboratory by adding cytokines to it and is then re-infused back into the patient.

A promising treatment that has emerged in recent times for treatment of melanoma is the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. They act by inhibiting the checkpoint receptors on T cells that act as brakes to the immune system thereby mediating anti-tumor responses. Some of the commonly used antibody inhibitors that have been commercialized are PD-1, PDL-1, and CTLA-4. Another more focused approach to cancer immuno-therapy is the use of vaccines to encourage the immune system to generate antibodies that can target tumor specific antigens, thereby eradicating cancerous cells. Cancer vaccines include peptide-based, dendritic cell-based, tumor cell-based and DNA cell based. Cancer vaccines can be broadly classified as preventive or therapeutic. Preventive vaccines are commercially available for against cervical and liver cancer causing viruses such as human Papillomavirus and Hepatitis B virus, respectively.

However, in spite of these advances, limitation such as tumor heterogeneity, unpredictable efficacy and identification of potential markers still exist in the field of cancer immuno-therapy. Therefore, new more targeted cancer immuno-therapies and preventive strategies are being developed and tested, which will deliver novel efficacious therapy against relapsed or refractory cancer patients.

Analysis to Next Generation Sequencing Technology

With the development of science, traditional Sanger sequencing has failed to meet new requirements of low cost, high throughput and fast in speed.

Recent years, with the discovery and promotion of second-generation sequencing technology, the gene sequencing speed has increased greatly while achieving a substantial decline in costs, making large-scale application of genome sequencing possible. Now, the cost of personal whole genome sequencing is about 5,000$, and is expected to decreased to less than $ 1,000 in the next few years.

The rapid development of sequencing technology will promote the massive accumulation of DNA sequencing data, accompanied by the accumulation of the corresponding individual diseases, signs and other data at the same time. When we accumulate enough data, how to understand these data will be critical. On the micro level, generations of molecular biologists’ studying the effects of apparent biological traits genes exert on utilizing technologies like gene knockout have made breakthroughs in many crucial aspects. On the macro level, statistics and other data analysis techniques are introduced to study the relationship between gene sequences and biological phenotype. The accumulation of basic scientific research gradually brings breakthroughs in clinical applications.

There are now two types of clinical applications mainly, one aims at disease screening of ordinary people. It infers people’s future risks of getting cancer by measuring the known genes associated with a disease loci. The other aims at the diagnosis cancer and other deadly diseases. It finds in a series of drugs or plans the most effective one for certain patients by testing the loci of certain genes.

Data from BBC research shows that total global gene sequencing market increased from $ 7.941million in 2007 to $ 4.5 billion in 2013, and will reach $ 11.7 billion in the year of 2018 with the CAGR up to 21.2%.

Currently, the market of de novo sequence platform is mainly taken by several major manufacturers, including the Illumina, Ion Torrent / Life Technologies (was the acquisition of Thermo Fisher in 2014), 454 Life Sciences / Roche, etc.

Under such a circumstance, the next generation sequencing technology (second-generation sequencing) appears. As an emerging industry, the next-generation sequencing technology can be applied in clinical testing like antibody discovery, health industry, industrial and agricultural use of gene-oriented study as well as scientific research and development.

Cardiac Diagnosis Support By Global Air Ambulance Services In Allahabad With Medical Faculty

We serve the Air Relocation Services that flies local and distant aircraft, across the counties in the world

Global Air Evacuation Services is expanding its services to fly patients over 5 counties. Our Charted Aircraft provide a rapid response to trauma and medical emergencies over several cities and countries covering many of India’s major road networks.

With an average response between them, our aircraft attend on average. Our Critical Care Cars then work throughout the night attending medical emergencies that occur within these regions creating a service that operates 24/7, 365 days a year.

If you’re local, you may well have seen us in the skies above you. What many people don’t realize when seeing our air ambulances or visiting our office is that we’re a least chargeable Air Ambulance Service provider, so we’re only able to continue with our services because of generous evacuation.

Here we are the best support of the Air Ambulance to shift the patients to the required and needed designation with the comfortable support of the medical equips to avail the treatments along the specialist faculty of the MD Doctors and the Emergency Medical Technicians to observe the patient all along the process of the medical tourism only with Global Air Ambulance Services.

We are here to facilitate all the citizens of India with the emergency rehabilitation support via airways, railways, and also with the Roadways ambulance services to shift the critical patients with the setup of the medical equipment’s and the medical faculty to treat the patients with the diagnosis all along the evacuation process.

The Global Air Ambulance in Allahabad is always at the top of the emergency services like medical team (a large and smart channel of MD doctors panel, a group of paramedical technicians, nursing staff and medical dispatches; they all are always ready) emergency Equipment such as ventilators, cardiac monitor, suction machine, infusion pump, nebulizer machine, oxygen cylinder, speed maker, defied Radiator, all basic and advance support), help and transfer serious patients round-the-clock. (Always in need of necessary updates and renewal costs which is very economical and reliable); Services (Patient Transfer Ground-Rail-Ground, Ground-Air-Ground, 24/7 Hours), Experience (Approximate Most Required) and provides the safe, experienced, responsible and quick emergency evacuation services necessary for patients.

We are also available with the Air Ambulance in Bangalore so the citizens of Bangalore could meet the needs of the emergency facility. One of the Super Specialty Emergency Service Providers, which will give them personal ambulance services, Commercial Airlines Stretcher Services (Air India, Jet Airways, Indigo, Go Air, Air Asia, Other), Train Medical Preservation Services and Road Ambulance (ACLS, BLS, BLS ) Offers and QEV) Expert, experienced and responsible medical care team to move serious people in less time under the unit.